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Individual champions and opponents frequently play a major role, as does serendipity — or chance. The implications of this are that engaging with policy requires more than just research skills.

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According to Simon Maxwell, director of ODI, if researchers want to be good policy entrepreneurs, they also need to synthesise simple, compelling stories from the results of the research. Or they need to work in multidisciplinary teams with others who have these skills. It has been field tested through more than 30 workshops and training courses worldwide. To use research-based evidence for promoting a specific policy or practice, the first step is to map the policy context around that issue and identify the key factors that may influence the policy process.

RAPID has developed a simple checklist of questions to accomplish this, including questions about the key external agents, the political context itself, the research-based evidence and the other stakeholders who can help. The second step is to identify the key influential stakeholders. Agents that are highly interested and aligned should be natural allies and collaborators.

Those who are highly interested but not aligned need to be brought into alignment or somehow prevented from creating obstacles. Prompting enthusiasm among powerful agents that are highly aligned but not interested can increase the chance of success.

Prompting enthusiasm among agents that are not highly aligned risks creating more tensions. The third step is to identify the changes needed among the key stakeholders if they are to support the desired policy outcome. Focusing on those agencies that it is possible to influence, it is important to describe as precisely as possible their current behaviour.

A Practical Approach to Pharmaceutical Policy - Andreas Seiter - Medecine

Having identified the necessary behavioural changes, the fourth step is to develop a strategy to achieve the milestone changes in the process. There are many strategic planning tools that can be used for this. Force Field Analysis is a flexible tool that helps identify the forces supporting and opposing the desired change and suggest concrete responses see Figure 3. The forces can be ranked first according to their degree of influence over the change, and then according to the degree of control it is possible for the project team to exert over them.

Activities can then be identified to reduce the negative forces and increase the positive ones. Sometimes it is not possible to influence agents directly and it is necessary to target others who can do so. This might mean rethinking the priority stakeholders.

More sophisticated tools also exist for visualising strategies and actions for example strategy maps. The fifth step is to consider whether the project or programme has the necessary capacity to implement the strategy. Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats SWOT analysis is a well-known tool that can be used to identify whether a project has the necessary resources to achieve its objectives, and that also recognises the potential impact of external influences. Complexity theory conceptualises competence as an evolving set of systems, processes and skills to enable agents to make the right decisions and act, rather than as a predetermined set of capabilities.

Competency frameworks can be used to map the existing and the desired competencies needed to influence policy and to track progress toward achieving them. The sixth and final step is to develop a monitoring and learning system. This is not only to track progress, make any necessary adjustments and assess the effectiveness of the approach, but also to learn lessons for the future. Recording the results of these planning steps, noting the attainment of progress markers and achievement of improved competency levels, and keeping simple logs of unexpected events should allow the team to produce and use knowledge about policy content, context, the strategy and activities, outcomes behaviour changes , the skills, competencies and systems necessary.

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Mugenda, A. Research methods dictionary. Mutinda, K. Nayak, N. Flexibility and performance relationships: evidence from Indian bearing manufacturing firm. International Journal of Modelling in Operations Management, 1 1 , Mutia, J. School based factors influencing level of implementation of national school health strategic plan in public secondary schools in Kitui West Sub County Kitui County, Kenya Doctoral dissertation.

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Seiter, A. Practical Approach to Pharmaceutical Policy Directions in development.

Impact of research on policy and practice

World Bank Group. Wolfe, C. Pharmaceutical policy. World Bank. Series: Directions in development Washington, D. Developed Countries.

1st Edition

Government Regulation. Health Plan Implementation. Health Policy—economics. QV Sp ] RA A1S45 Notre catalogue.

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Documents Savoirs Medecine. YouScribe est heureux de vous offrir cette publication. Description Pharmaceuticals are an essential component of health care.