Leiden: Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde. Bala, P. Unpublished PhD thesis : University of Cambridge. Barnett, T. In Rethinking Social Development. Theory, Research and Practice, David Booth ed. Harlow: Longman Scientific and Technical. Bending, T. No Accessed on 12 August Boulanger, C. Making Modern Malaysians in Sarawak.
Brookfield, H. Brosius, J. Comparative Studies in Society and History Human Ecology Global Studies in Culture and Power. Special issue 6: , Cambridge, Mass. Durham: Duke University Press. Bryant, R. King ed. Cleary, M. Change and Development. Singapore: Oxford University Press. Cooke, Fadzilah Majid. The Challenge of Sustainable Forests. Forest Resource Policy in Malaysia, Development and Change Journal of Southeast Asian Studies State, Communities and Forests in Contemporary Borneo. Cramb, R. Development in Sarawak: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives.
Paper on Southeast Asia, No Dandot, W. Jurnal AZAM 3: Jurnal AZAM 7: Eccleston, B. Journal of Commonwealth and Comparative Politics London: Routledge. Eghenter, C. Eilenberg, M. Borneo Research Bulletin Emmerson, D. Tempe ed. Evers, Hans-Dieter. Southeast Asian Journal of Social Science. Special focus: Alternative Discourses in the Social Sciences Comparative Sociology, 2: Global Knowledge: the Epistemic Culture of Development.
In Local and Global. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Giddens, A. The Consequences of Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press. Runaway World. London: Profile Books Ltd. Anthony Giddens and Will Hutton in Conversation. In Global Capitalism, Hutton, W. New York: The New Press.
Media and Nation Building: How the Iban became Malaysian
Gunn, G. Rentier Capitalism in Negara Brunei Darussalam. Sydney: Allen and Unwin. Harrisson, T. The Malohs of Kalimantan: Ethnological Notes. The Sarawak Museum Journal Hew Cheng Sim. Noor addresses the problem in his typically straightforward way :. Malay civilization, like all civilizations, is a hybrid amalgam of many civilizations.
We were Hindus and Buddhists before, and before that we were pagan […]. The coming of the great religions—Hinduism, Buddhism and Islam—and the arrival of new modernist schools of thought should not be seen as distinct episodes that keep our histories apart. Instead they should be seen as layers of civilisational acculturation that have added depth to our collective sense of identity, who we were, who we are, and who we want to be in the future […].
We would be able to face the future with much greater confidence if we could admit our own internal heterogeneity and complexity, rather than continually trying to deny the past and to homogenise the present into one flat, monolithic discourse of sameness. Such assimilation would work better, now that Malaysian textbooks are beginning to acknowledge the existence of a pre-Malay, pre-Islamic past, if curricula acknowledged the special ties Semai have with the Hindu-Buddhist civilizations on the peninsula, with the Khmer and, especially, the Mon influences that have also affected Malay culture in many ways Benjamin , ; Dentan a , b.
John Postill writes borneo-l ikanlundu. The kinds of choices that education bestows are generally speaking […] selfish choices, at most choices relating to advantages for one's very immediate family. Another function of education is of course social control. And this is a value judgment which is both bad and sad. Louise Tokarsky-Unda pers. I was particularly interested in the quote you gave from a Semai student explaining why he formed a clique with other Orang Aslis and became violent.
I see that here all the time. Migrant children, when they first come here, are pleasant, non-aggressive, and excited about learning things. As you described, […] they eventually become violent and stick together. They stop using Spanish. When they play together in the migrant camps, they use English to communicate. In our efforts to develop the education for orang asli [sic], we must do away with the old style. The approach […] now is to make adjustments according to their culture and needs because their requirements are different from other communities.
In the United States, where almost a third of high school students drop out almost half of minority kids , about twenty per cent of students go to schools that actually encourage intellectual activity and prepare students for the best jobs: best in terms of pay, best in terms of freedom, best in terms of fostering creativity. He believes that the United States could keep its head start in technology if the education available in rich liberal suburbs were available to more American children.
It could be available everywhere. Some other changes might help. Instead of ordering children to perform tasks, teachers would ask them if they knew how to. Instead of modeling sloth, anger, and violence, teachers would show up on time and expect their students to perform, expressing disappointment rather than rage when they did not. Instead of forcing children to learn news ways of learning in a new language as well! The two photos accompanying this paper indicate what a class might look like: springy all-purpose floors, not rows of desks with a big desk in front; large familiar rooms with parents and peers present, rather than unfamiliar surroundings dominated by alien images and blackboards; teachers and students in the same posture and on a level.
The Secretary General of the Ministry in charge 38 already gives speeches expressing the political feeling which we have heard from other educated Malays that people are tired of wasting money on Orang Asli programs, but does not suggest that changing the programs might help. Still, the current system causes so much supererogatory suffering, and is so inefficient at the educational part of its task, that some alternative seems morally necessary. Working with a Montessori school, MUSE managed to get mostly impoverished primary schoolers, none of whom spoke Italian, to collaborate with their compeers in an Italian school to write and perform an opera about Galileo in Italian, featuring arias about freedom of scientific inquiry, the special characteristics of the number seven, the similarities between Galileo and Martin Luther King, etc.
Researchers reported at the Asia-Pacific Childhoods Conference held at the National University of Singapore that Indonesian school kids, who learned math by singing, learned it better than Singaporean students did. Too bad for the kids. KATZ, A. NAH, Alice M. Lian ed. Smith, Y.
Morita, J. Junger-Tas, D. Olweus, R. Mahathir Mohamad], Manusia dan Masyarakat , n.
Cannan ed. Smith for their assistance with issues of bullying and its consequences. Thanks also to Judith Ennew and Roxana Waterson for inviting us to deliver a short version of this paper as a keynote address to the Asia-Pacific Childhoods Conference, National University of Singapore, July And, as always, for the patience of Bernard Sellato, the editor.
After giving the speech, and winning the prize, he quit. The founders are quite clear: schooling is NOT to provide intellectual stimulation or tools for upward social mobility. See, e. Semai nyamp is the equivalent of Malay mambang kuning , which, by sympathetic magic, can produce jaundice Danaraj 29, 78; Dentan Not only would Semai suffer the horror anyone would feel under such circumstances, they interpret the subsequent nightmares in which the abused or neglected child appears as manifesting the desire of the shadow of the child, its ghost, still bound by the ties of love, to return to its family and devour them.
Of course there are personal and local variations in practice. People in the Cameron Highlands, who say that children are like dogs, always snapping at each other, sometimes beat their children; as noted below, other Semai say that adults from this area tend to be more assertive and aggressive than most Semai. Christian and Muslim converts are more likely to hit their children. Moreover, Semai drunks, like drunks everywhere, are likely to abuse kids. The names in this paragraph are pseudonyms.
At Mncaak, 10 March , Bah Euzan, 6, harassed a girl, 4, by grabbing her head. Then the boys continued good-naturedly roughhousing. Parental caretaking is quiet and physical, like this instance fieldnotes, 14 Feb. Mom told Mpeent, 6, to wash up, which he did, getting water in his ear, which made him weep bitterly. Mom cuddled him for several minutes, to no avail. Dad came back from shopping, held Mpeent on his lap for a while, till the weeping subsided. Mpeent then rejoined Iluuj in front of the TV, bringing his school books as his dad told him to.
The aforementioned Arif Embing, e. On the Tluup in the early s: Calling a disease [by name] both startles and shames it, after which it retreats. The idea behind a spell is to render a spirit powerless and submissive by stating its name […] Kroes 30 n The same rule applies in hunting.
The verb is —siil , —seel or —seil. Besides pestering me to look at the book I brought along, some Semai kids drew pictures for me, e. I like to play football and chess.
Posts from the ‘Southeast Asia’ Category
My best friend ejesti. The young adults, laughing and primping, pay the kids no mind, the men preparing to salsa by turning up their shirt collars, unbuttoning at least a few shirt buttons and tying their shirt tails together in front. The only occasion on which the adults shooed the kids away -halaaw was to clear the target area for the blowpipe contest at the harvest festival. As all of us headed for the car] M gravely offered me his limp hand to shake.
We exchanged formal departure courtesies. M fills in the blanks, big brother chiming in, both first in flawless Malay, then in flawless Semai. No hesitation at all. The principal, opined Colin Nicholas, has managed to keep Malay-Semai relations from deteriorating, and the kids denied, in chorus, that there was any discrimination against them. One reason why the kids had fun with learning English is that, as in most poor rural schools Ridzuan , the Batu 7 school has difficulty attracting competent English teachers.
The question of dis-education in traditional knowledge as a result of mainstream-schooling is beyond the scope of this paper see, e. But Nani did not know what Semai call the abundant and salient Saraca trees in the area, whose branches, laden with bright yellow-orange flowers, give the settlement its name; a couple of older girls knew the Malay term kuak; but apparently no one knew the old Semai term glpaap , which was already obsolete in lowland Perak a quarter of a century ago.
Southeast Asia | media/anthropology | Page 2
Still, one would have felt better had they known. The extinction meant that the people had no way to thatch their houses or weave the walls. They talked to the JHEOA about roofing and report that the official said, in effect: You can get houses if you convert, and you can keep your old customs. The area is home to several Semai intellectuals, including the first Semai professor of anthropology and the first Semai novelist, so this response is not typical. Although the church does not support the house or the children, the Assemblies of God, an extremist Christian sect, did recruit the Semai man who lives there for free with his family in return for looking after the children from the perils of big city life.
As a result the kids suffer a regime of hymns and prayers. The situation as of February seemed set to change Colin Nicholas, pers. There is also an asrama , boarding school, in Tapah for rural kids, a lot of whom are Semai. A tall chainlink fence topped with barbed wire surrounds the buildings. A uniformed male Malay guard occupies the guardhouse by the locked gate. Visit Hrs. When to visit[:] Saturday and Sunday, except in cases of emergency. Visiting hours: 9AM to PM.
Visitors are required to check in with the security officer before they are allowed to enter. Visitors allowed to meet with students [only] in the room designated for that purpose. By direction of the principal. Segan and slniil are kindred, painful emotions. Segan seems more fearful: not just of rejection, but of actual attack. That Semai kids get picked on more than other kids is not surprising.
In Britain, minority kids are about twice as likely as others to suffer severe abusive bullying Katz et al. That Malay kids seem more likely to be the bullies is a more complex issue, too difficult for us to discuss here, though we have suggested some possible causes in the text: the brutal history of Semai-Malay relations, the ethnocentrism of Malay education, the Arabization of Malaysian Islam, the sense that Semai are kafir who lack any religion and are thus incomplete, the violence of traditional and official Malay culture e. In the course of the s, Mahathir sought to define Islamic values in a way that both promoted social cohesion and marginalized Islamic radicalism.
Nevertheless, in state elections held since , PAS has managed just, by a majority of one seat to retain its regional control of the government of Kelantan. The underlying propensity to political fragmentation becomes particularly acute in times of economic stress when elite disagreement at the centre reinforces religious and ethnic tension at the periphery. The events of demonstrated this. The summer of saw a massive sell off on the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange, the collapse of the ringgit and Malaysian business more illiquid than Manhattan during prohibition.
The crisis questioned the continuing viability of Malaysia Incorporated in a globalized market place. They also considered political reform a necessary corollary to economic reform. Found guilty by state appointed Chief Justice Paul he received a six year jail sentence. The detention of Anwar prompted popular demonstrations for political reform. At the same time, to promote her message, Wan Azizah joined forces with the ethnic and religious based opposition parties, rendering her appeal somewhat ambivalent. After his release from prison, Anwar assumed de facto leadership of PKI although he is barred from standing for parliament until April The election of course will be held in March.
Instead, he maintained, Malaysia had been viciously mugged by global hedge funds. Consequently, the economy required currency controls to prevent capital flight rather than IMF style fiscal and economic reform. The strategy adopted by the new National Economic Action Council demonstrated both the strengths and weaknesses of Malaysian capitalism. Despite an 8 percent contraction in Malaysian GDP in , state-imposed currency stability created the space to address foreign debt without recourse to the IMF.
Malaysia looked East for liquidity. Fuelled by a cheap currency, external demand for Malaysian electronics the Malaysian economy rebounded strongly. Its resource riches in natural gas and palm oil saw the ringgit strengthen and the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange rise to new heights as foreign direct investment returned to the once ailing tiger after If little else, the Malaysian case demonstrates, that structural weakness notwithstanding, the developmental model could survive the challenges of globalization. Yet it is the terms of this contract and its concentration of power in the hands of a narrow political and business elite that has caused recent consternation — amongst the opposition, amongst the urban Chinese and Indian working classes and even amongst normally quiescent constitutional lawyers.
The appeal of the DAP to the Chinese population particularly in Penang, and now Hindraf to alienated Tamils whose marginal socio-economic position has become more apparent since , reflect the enduring character of racial and religious cleavages that the UMNO imposed version of racial harmony has only exacerbated.
Indeed, consociationalism together with a globalized media that increasingly facilitates minority identification with a rising India and China has only reinforced ethnic association at the expense of a shared Malaysian identity. The media with its Chinese language channels and the popularly available diet of Bollywood movies only serves to reinforce communal rather than shared Malaysian identifications.
Meanwhile, increasingly aware of these threats to Malay cultural dominance, the mood amongst the UMNO rank and file is anxious. At its annual general assemblies UMNO delegates have increasingly emphasised the importance of Malayness. In this context, the live broadcasting on television of the UMNO General Assembly meeting was a community relations disaster. It is not surprising, therefore, that despite the strong economic performance UMNO anxiety about social harmony and the sacred social contract together with minority community concern about their place in a united Malaysia will be widely advertised in the election campaign.
This notwithstanding, the Chinese and Indian middle classes, have powerful economic incentives for supporting the UMNO-led coalition in March. Badawi justifiably presents opposition attacks as conducive to communalism and political instability. Given the fragility of post-independence Malaysian identity, and the uncertain global economic climate, pragmatic single party rule remains central to political order and economic growth. Friedrich Naumann Foundation: Singapore p. In the course of the s, Mahathir preferred the more politically correct notion of affirmative action.
Similarly in , the Association of the Bar of New York found that intimidation of the judiciary, growing restrictions on the freedom of the press and the use of the Internal Security Act ISA , dating from the Malay Emergency, had curtailed peaceful and legitimate dissent. The Austral Peace and Security Network invites your responses to this essay. Please send responses to the editor, Jane Mullett: austral rmit. The views expressed in this article are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the Nautilus Institute.
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