Here is the royal priesthood of the People of God: but so that this royal priesthood may be able to generate itself, to be regenerated and realized in the heart of the Christian, the hierarchical and ministerial priesthood is necessary. The priesthood in which we share through the Sacrament of Orders, which has been forever imprinted on our souls through a special sign from God, that is to say the character, remains in explicit relationship with the common priesthood of the faithful, and, at the same time, it differs from it essentially and not only in degree Letter, Holy Thursday is every year the day of the birth of the Eucharist, and at the same time the birthday of our priesthood, which is above all ministerial and at the same time hierarchical.
It is ministerial, because by virtue of Holy Orders we perform in the Church that service which it is given only to priests to perform, first of all the service of the Eucharist. It is also hierarchical, because this service enables us, by serving, to guide pastorally the individual communities of the People of God The priesthood is completely at the service of this life, it bears witness to it through the service of the Word, it generates it, regenerates it and spreads it abroad through the service of the sacraments.
Before all else the priest himself lives this life, which is the deepest source of his maturity and also the guarantee of the spiritual fruitfulness of his whole service! Called in the Church by the Spirit to stand in the forefront of the Church as Pastores Dabo vobis records for us, the priest is called above all to live this new ontology of his life, belonging unconditionally to Christ, assimilating in the imitation of Christ the fundamental criteria of judgment and the fundamental movement of the heart which is charity. The prayer of the priest, in its various forms, totally involves the heart of priestly existence with the presence of the Lord and daily raises the existence of the priest to the greatness and inconceivable dignity contained in the yes of Simon Peter: "Lord, you know that I love you.
From this new ontology, lived personally with integral dedication to the mystery of Christ present, is born pastoral charity, the intense love for Christians because the people of God exist objectively! It is by means of the celebration of the sacraments, first of all, that of the Eucharist, that the Christian people continually come to be generated, regenerated and educated to their mission. With an opportune series of catechetical initiatives this Christian people should be helped to assume a more profound consciousness of the definitiveness of the gift of faith and helped.
Therefore it is necessary that the priest form in the Christian people a new mentality, " This capacity of a new mentality expresses itself in history as charity in the tension towards an inexorable proclamation of Christ which gives every detail and every action of human existence dignity and merit. The priest, who lives the new life of Christ in himself, is the instrument of communication of this life inseparable from the Spirit, and is actively involved in the maturation of this life in the people. This drama of the love for Christ together with the love for the brothers is developed by way of reference to the mother of the Lord.
The lack of time does not allow us to quote in detail the many beautiful passages of the Holy Thursday letter of ; let this suffice: " Let us take Mary as Mother into the interior home of our priesthood Permit me to conclude this talk for you by reading a short extract of one of the most lofty pages of the entire teaching of John Paul II, drawn from number 10 of Redemptor Hominis: " It is also called Christianity.
So that this wonder becomes a human and therefore historic mission, Holy Orders is necessary: here lies the entire dignity, the greatness, the sacrifice, the joy of our priestly service. We have to deal responsibly with the fact of the ongoing crisis which, in the seventies, unsettled the priestly world and, with surprising persistence still continues to unsettle it. The rushed pace of change from one cultural model to another, from modernity to the crisis of its myths reason, science, progress, democracy which gives life to the so-called postmodern era, from a religiosity that is partially remote to its basic reasons, to its secularization and, its leap into the arms of the postchristian era with the loss even of the extrinsic relationship mentioned before, could only upset and obscure the vision of the priesthood.
There was an effort to reshape a new priestly identity that took place in a piecemeal fashion. The meetings at Chur, Switzerland , Geneva , Rome and were useful stages. At the time everyone thought that there was no need to shape a new identity but the need was to learn how to live in a new social context. Paul VI, of venerable memory, convened the third assembly of the synod of bishops , with adequate preparation of all the issues in the hope of giving a focus to the issues and moving them towards a solution.
At the same time many works of considerable theological import were published examining the genesis of the priesthood and its sacramental foundations. It was necessary to reestablish a vital contact for the priest, caught in the grip of his crisis, with the origins of the Christian priesthood. Through that contact, which is really contact with Christ and with his sacramental continuity in and for the life of the Church, one would recover:.
The sacramental nature of Holy Orders in its three grades episcopacy, priesthood, diaconate in order to reverse the reduction of the priesthood to its ministerial dimension and to view the ministry as a simple community delegation to specialized functionaries R. Bunnik, S.
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Schoonenberg, J. Moingt, I. Flamand ;. The indelibility of character, sometimes was not presented in accord with the rich scholastic-tridentine theology of an "interior sign," and "impression and inherence in the soul. Muhlen , demystifying E. Schillebeeckx and desacralizing view advanced by a large group of theologians who are liberal in their attitude toward the ecclesiastical Magisterium;.
These are recoveries of great importance. Meanwhile the transformation of the modern era and its movement into the postmodern era on every front of the predominant culture is clear to everyone. Here we face the problem of how to accelerate the translation of the recovered teaching on the priesthood into applicable forms.
Theology did its part, justifying the new presentation of the teaching in the light of revelation and of its statute as the science of faith. I refer to valuable and persuasive interventions, converging on the same goal. I wish to mention among others, J. Coppens, G. Rambaldi, A.
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Pompei, G. Gozzolino, J. Galot, H. Denis, J. Le Guillou, J. Lecuyer, Y. Congar, A. Martimort, in addition to K. Rahner and others, many of whom remain anonymous. Among the various problems examined, that of the priest-in-relationship attracted the most interest. It was a question of establishing, in the new cultural climate, how the priest relates to the bishop and to the lay world, as well as to history in the making.
More than theological-dogmatic, the problem was theological-pastoral. The image of priest-in-relationship, in fact, did not capture "directe et immediate" the nature of being priest, but focused on the network of his vertical and horizontal relationships. Bishops and priests, indeed, are not owners of different priesthoods, but they exercise in different ways the one and only priesthood of Christ. And priests do not function "in persona Christi" through the effects of baptism and confirmation, but through a specific consecration that constitutes them Christ-in-sacrament and channels of grace for the priestly people.
As a result we find a triple relationship: to the bishop, to other priests, to the people of God. In the broadest sense one could also speak of a relationship to the world. Regarding the priest-in-relationship serious and prepared theologians published the fruit of their research, demonstrating that, to be "the man of God ready for every good work" 2 Timothy , that same loyalty to Christ and to the brothers which characterized the priest of yesterday and characterizes the priest forever, is indispensable to the priest today, so that he may be equipped with all the courage and prudence that the difficult moment demands.
A priest functions as a priest in the prophetic work of evangelization, in the sacramental life, in his responsibility as spiritual guide, in his giving himself to prayer each day, and in the face of new social demands and even political commitment. In view of such considerations, the tension between the present and the future assumes a symptomatic importance. We have read the persistent headlines: The priest of today, the priest for today, the priest of tomorrow, is there a tomorrow for the priest?
Behind each of these headlines, whether hidden or in the open, there is a great deal of ambiguity, as if the priest were subject to constant change. But together we can deal with changing reality and the urgency of the future which these headlines express; we can still claim that the ambiguity is groundless.
These headlines, in fact, do not point to an ever changing identity of the priest, but only to a change of his image. The complex cultural situation of today and the warning signs which loom large today have to affect the image of the priest. What is he? The question of the image of the priest requires the marshaling of the proper means so that the question of his identity not be submerged nor clouded over. The priest is only priest, he remains priest, holder of tremendous and exalted powers which have come from Christ to make him His sacramental prolongation.
Not a man like others, notwithstanding the fact that he is a man like others. Not one who is approved. Not one who is hidden. But one distinct from the others, although he is a "brother in the midst of his brothers" P0, 3. Distinct because consecrated. Vowed to a most special mission, for which he, the priest, unlike the others, is sacramentally equipped. Consequently, the outline of a change in image, which is proportionate to the situation which is developing, is becoming clearer.
The new image does not cancel the constitutive features of the priest, but channels them into attitudes and behaviors always less inadequate to the expectations, if not also to the challenges of the predominant culture. Not because this submerges the identity of the priest, but because it is open to incorporating the evangelical values which the priest proposes. The priest has a new image only because it gives a new sense and vigor:. To those theologians, who have contributed, in the whole Catholic world, to better defining this image of the priest, we all have to convey the gratitude of the Church and of her priests.
Monsignor Alfonso Crespo Hidalgo 2. To speak of the priest and the mass media should not be something extra-ordinary. The Family Portrait. In the mass media the clergy appears only occasionally, in restricted circumstances: when the "public person of the priest" makes the news. This "public person" can appear from a favorable light the Pope with children, an apostolic nuncio operating as mediator, a priest-religious engaged in the social field: it is calculated to reduce charity to simple philanthropy and overlook the basic religious dimension placing the activity of the Church on the level of any other organization or in an unfavorable light that presents the priest in an impersonal way as the functionary of an institution.
There is also the frivolous and ridiculous photograph like that which appears in the commercials or in television or radio interviews. Moreover there is the still undeveloped frames:. The keys for the interpretation of these photographs. The interpretive frame is that of modernity and of the secularization of society. Modernity finds its roots in the technical-scientific rationalism which eliminates the preaching of transcendence.
This transcendent preaching exists neither in "ideological and religious pluralism," nor in the "new political Machiavellianism" nor in the view that faith is something completely private. All this results in secularism and in the famous priestly identity crisis which pushes the genuine figure of the priest out of focus. What can be done for the development of a "new photograph"?
One important premise is this: the mass media are a concrete reality and have a very great power to steer the world. Granted this indisputable premise, the priest ought among other things:. Cardinal Christian Wiyghan Tumi 2. Vatican II Lumen Gentium, nn. All the people of God are called to holiness just as their heavenly Father is holy.
It is also the whole Church which is missionary. It continues and actualizes the mission of Christ the Redeemer. In the person of the apostles, the Church has received a universal mission, which knows no limits and which concerns itself with salvation in all its richness, in accordance with the fullness of life that Christ has come to bring us cf. John : it the Church has been sent to reveal and communicate the love of God to all men and to all peoples on earth" Ad Gentes, n. This mission is unique, because it has one sole origin and one sole goal, but it entails diverse tasks and activities Redemptoris Missio, n.
The common fundamental mission of the Church does not eliminate the particular mission of every baptized person according to his state of life. There are various and distinctive features of vocation and consecration, just as there are of mission. The mission of the Church presupposes diversity in its realization.
Unity in diversity manifests itself also at this level. From this prospective, the priest, insofar as he works with his bishop and in virtue of his consecration, has a specific role to play in the common mission of the Church. It is this specific, missionary ministry that we are going to try to highlight in this exposition composed of three parts. We shall examine, gradually, the particular function of the diocesan priest in the mission, that of the priest-religious contemplative and active , and education in the missionary spirit of candidates to the priesthood.
Every priest is before all else a man chosen, consecrated and sent by God through the agency of the Church of Jesus Christ, to teach, sanctify and guide the people of God toward its true happiness the God of Jesus Christ. Ordained to be a co-worker with his bishop, the priest is associated with him in the priestly function of serving the people of God.
Configured to Christ, the eternal, Sovereign Priest, the diocesan priest is consecrated to announce the Gospel, to be the pastor of the people of God and to celebrate the liturgy in offering, above all, the eucharistic sacrifice of the Lord. He can be defined as the disinterested servant of God and of the Gospel, by his words and witness to priestly holiness for the salvation of souls beginning with his own. In virtue of the sacrament of Holy Orders, every priest is called to share the concern of the bishop, with whom he collaborates, for the mission: "the spiritual gift which priests have received at ordination prepares them, not for a limited and restricted mission, but for a salvific mission of universal scope, "unto the ends of the earth The priest joins with the Holy Spirit Protagonist of the mission to become the person responsible for and the principal agent of the pastoral mission.
This necessitates a "missionary heart and mentality. Redemptoris Missio, n. The missionary apostolate embraces a double salvific activity of the Church: the announcement of the Gospel and the "foundation of new Churches among peoples and groups where they do not yet exist" Redemptoris Missio, n. The internal missionary dynamism, maintained by pastoral charity and in depth evangelization of the faithful, leads to the mission Ad Gent es. There is a fundamental interdependence between the mission ad intra and the mission ad extra.
Also missionary activity ad intra is a credible sign and stimulus for the missionary activity ad extra, and vice-versa" Redemptoris Missio, n. There are means which help pastors of souls to realize the mission ad intra, to arouse in Christian communities the internal dynamism which leads to the mission ad gentes. Priestly ordination configures the priest to Christ, Head and Spouse of the Church. This interior source makes him act in the name of Christ and as the sacrament of Christ. Thus, through his ministry, he must try to illustrate consistently the prophetic mission of the Church. This manifests itself by pastoral charity which drives him to abandon himself for his sheep the Christian community which is confided to him.
He is, therefore, called to serve his brothers and sisters without exception, loving them with the very love of Christ. This is only possible if the priest accomplishes his pastoral task in the spirit of Christ, sent by the heavenly Father. To do this, he is asked to pay attention to the action of the Holy Spirit in the ministry of the Word, of sacraments, of prayer, of welcoming people, of listening, of visiting, etc.
Particular importance should be accorded to the eucharistic celebration, source, foundation and summit of missionary priestly spirituality. The priest brings there the concerns of the whole Church for the whole of humanity. The source of the mission is Trinitarian. But this reality need not call into question the gift of the Holy Spirit that is called the ministry of authority in the Church bishop, priest, deacon. It is a matter of a specific service which leads certain men set apart to live the mission as an act of their faith. Thus, they agree to make their life an intimate communion with the being and the activity of Christ.
In joys and pains or failures they strive to have confidence in the mission itself work of the Holy Spirit , and to be adamant about conducting missionary activity in the manner that Jesus Christ himself lived it. This implies today that the absolute priority, or the central preoccupation, of every priest in a parish apostolate should be the concern for missionary animation and cooperation. As Cardinal Josef Tomko said on the occasion of the presentation of Redemptoris Missio to the press , priests secular and religious must be the principal agents of "the missionary revolution of the Church.
They include also missionary information and missionary formation of the People of God. Priests are asked to help all the baptized to acquire the missionary spirit and to open their spiritual, cultural and social life to universal dimensions. This missionary animation is facilitated by Catholic action associations or movements and by groups especially the youth. These give rise to and promote, not only missionary vocations ad gentes, but also good cooperation for evangelization Redemptoris Missio, n.
The priest hereby communicates above all a life, or better an experience of life. But if he himself does not live in Christ, how is he able to communicate this experience to others? Hence, the call to sanctity is for the good fulfillment of the mission. The renewed impulse to the mission ad gentes demands holy missionaries. The priest, to be truly missionary, must try diligently to be holy. He must become a "contemplative in action" who draws the power for his actions from the divine Word, and from individual and communal prayer.
In effect, he evangelizes much more by his life, and his deeds, in short, more by witness than by theories. Consequently, to accomplish his mission well, every priest must show that he is the witness only of the one Master: Jesus Christ who the whole of humanity is called to recognize as its Lord. It is a matter of a consistent style of life in the setting where he exercises his priestly ministry. This is born out in a life marked by apostolic obedience, evangelical poverty, chastity in consecrated celibacy, and priestly unity with the diocesan bishop -"with Peter and under Peter.
Ordination and incarnation connect with the diocese, the priests, who cannot have an isolated existence. All priests participate to the same degree of ministry and can only realize the mission effectively within the presbyterate constituted by their brother priests. This corresponds to the will of the Lord who never sent his apostles on mission alone, but instead two by two Mark We comprehend why the presbyteral body is necessary for all priests who work for the common mission Lumen Gentium, n.
All this inspires the priest to work in a unity of views, of hearts and of action, animated by the very love of Christ, in fidelity to the same evangelical doctrine of which the Church is the guardian. Pastoral charity for brother priests and for the faithful should not make the priest forget the missionary requirements of dialogue with and evangelization of the "de-christianized," non-Catholics and non-Christians present in the area where he lives ecumenical dialogue, dialogue with the Muslims and believers of the traditional religions.
He is consecrated for the salvation of the whole world Ad Gentes, n. For this, he must be available for the mission ad gentes beyond the borders and limits of diocese and even of country. The mission ad gentes manifests in a fitting way the gift and gratuity of the Church. It aids those who are in spiritual and material need. It expresses growth toward maturity of faith. One goes beyond the temptation to rely on oneself in order to open his spirit and his heart, not only to the infinite horizons of the mission, but also to the essential ecclesial dimensions which follow:.
The communion which must exist among the diverse particular Churches demands the exchange of gifts, and especially of the living and personal gifts who are the priests. The example that confirms this is the experience of priests today cf. Fidei Donum. They provide a precious contribution to the growth of ecclesial communities in need, and for their part, they receive from these communities new energy and vitality for their faith" Redemptoris Missio, n.
This experience demands, among other things:. Interdiocesan priestly associations, clerical societies of apostolic life, secular institutes of priests and even congregations of religious priests" whose specific charisms and qualified ministries ensure an undeniable benefit to the mission of the Church Pastores Dabo Vobis, n.
This leads us to examine the specific place of the religious priest in the mission of the Church. The religious state is a way of living which is organized in view of holiness J. Hamer, "La dimension missionnaire de la vie religieuse," in "Les dossiers de la documentation catholique," Les religieux, Paris, Centurion, Religious life does not belong to the hierarchical structure of the Church, but to its life and its holiness.
An essential element of the holiness of the Church, it is characterized by the profession of evangelical counsels. In virtue of their detachment, total consecration in a life of poverty, chastity and obedience, the religious carry out a fruitful, generous and creative apostolate. The religious life, as a school of holiness, has in itself an undeniable missionary importance, if one accepts that the saints are the most effective actors in evangelization, as Pope John Paul II just recalled in Ecclesia in Africa chapter VII.
Thus, the missionary dimension of the religious life cannot do without apostolic holiness the personal and intimate experience of Christ through the life of prayer and evangelical charity. The principal mission of the religious priest must consist in the witness of his consecrated life.
The Synod of Bishops on the Consecrated Life October affirms that there is a fundamental interdependence between consecration and mission. The member of the consecrated life receives consecration for the mission of the Church in keeping with the charism of each Institute" Message, n. Beyond the diversity of charisms, it is also a question of the difference of juridical or canonical status. As the same Synod emphasized, the members of contemplative institutes must organize their life and mission by granting absolute priority to the mystery of Christ praying.
Their specific mission is to make known in the Church the dimension of Christ praying P. It is a matter of a life of adoration and intercession for the world. One accompanies, by means of "prayer and sacrifice, the apostolic works of the brothers" and sisters M. Here the effective service of prayer for the Church and for souls is underlined. The members of institutes of apostolic life cannot carry out their apostolate outside of the hierarchy. But the juridical status of religious autonomy of life protects their distinctiveness and helps them to respond not only to the needs of the local Church, but also to those of the universal Church.
This advantage frequently places them "on the frontiers of the mission" Evangelii Nuntiandi, n. This missionary impulse, inherent in the religious vocation, must find its place in the task of evangelization in the depths of the diocesan Church. Hence comes the necessity to create healthy relations between religious priests and diocesan priests on the one hand, and on the other, between the diocesan projects and institutional charisms.
Finally, the religious priest like the diocesan priest, in short, the pastor of souls, must flee the danger of a consuming activism in the mission of evangelization. The missionary incentive or zeal finds its source and its strength in prayer and intimate union with God. It is necessary to find a vital synthesis between consecration and mission. This dynamic nourishes itself and reinforces itself by listening to the Word of God, personal prayer the Divine Office, etc Thus, every pastor is called to imitate Jesus Christ, the supreme model of pastoral life. Our Lord and Master, even in the most intense periods of his ministry, always reserved privileged moments for exclusive dialogue with the Father in solitary prayer Mark ; Luke ; The regularity of prayer allows the priest to carry on his apostolate in profound communion with Christ the Savior.
And as the Synod of bishops on the consecrated life emphasized, "prayer is one of the most beautiful expressions of spiritual, fraternal communion with all the members of the People of God" P. There remains for us only to see how one can develop the priestly missionary spirituality in our seminaries and other priestly houses of formation. For every priest, missionary spirituality can only be developed by the seminary or another institution of priestly formation.
In Cameroon, we have emphasized in the Ratio Nationalis that the seminary must form men who have a pastoral sensibility which is apostolic and missionary men of their people, disciples of Jesus Christ and true pastors to all in the image of Christ.
It is a matter of initiating future priests to the apostolic and missionary spirit. Certain means can help to reach this fundamental objective of priestly formation:. In his message for the World Day of Missions June 11, , Pope John Paul II affirms that: "gift of the Father to humanity and prolongation of the Mission of the Son, the Church knows that it exists in order to carry the joyful news of the Gospel to the ends of the earth, as long as this world lasts cf.
Matthew Therefore, the mission cannot be the private enterprise of a priest; but the latter is the principal agent and animator of it. For the priest, the mission is a movement which brings him toward the other, as his servant, through and in the steps of Christ. Consequently, he must allow his personality to be modeled progressively by the Spirit of Christ and the Gospel which he announces.
He becomes with Christ the Suffering Servant who has "come not to be served, but to serve and to give his life as a ransom for many" Mark , in order that all men might have life and that they might have it in abundance John It is for this reason that the warning of the Apostle must always resound within each priest: "Woe to me if I do not preach the Gospel" 1 Corinthians ad gentes and ad vitam. The documents of the council constantly place the priest in relationship to Christ.
One aspect of such a relationship, which will be also strongly underlined in Pastores Dabo Vobis and in the Directory for the Ministry and Life of Priests, is his "conformity" to Christ. The constitution Lumen Gentium 28 speaks of "consecration to the image of Christ"; the decrees Optatam Totius 8 and Presbyterorum Ordinis 2,12, 17, speak explicitly of "conformity" or "configuration.
What does the conciliar decree mean by such a configuration? In certain cases, the decree speaks about a configuration conferred by the sacrament cf P0, 2 ; in other cases, it speaks of a configuration to which priests ought to commit themselves. In the first case it is dealing with a fact, in the second with a goal. Poppy Day by Amanda Prowse 25 Oct. Order in the next 21 hours 13 minutes and get it by Saturday, October More buying choices - Paperback.
Book 1 of 6. Other Formats: Kindle Edition. Add to Basket. Add to Wish List. What Have I Done? Book 2 of 6. Other Formats: Kindle Edition , Hardcover. Clover's Child by Amanda Prowse 16 Jan. Order in the next 18 hours 43 minutes and get it by Saturday, October Only 2 left in stock - order soon. His words are,. The like natural inducement hath brought men to know that it is no less their duty, to love others than themselves; for seeing those things which are equal, must needs all have one measure; if I cannot but wish to receive good, even as much at every man's hands, as any man can wish unto his own soul, how should I look to have any part of my desire herein satisfied, unless myself be careful to satisfy the like desire, which is undoubtedly in other men, being of one and the same nature?
To have any thing offered them repugnant to this desire, must needs in all respects grieve them as much as me; so that if I do harm, I must look to suffer, there being no reason that others should shew greater measure of love to me, than they have by me shewed unto them: my desire therefore to be loved of my equals in nature as much as possible may be, imposeth upon me a natural duty of bearing to them-ward fully the like affection; from which relation of equality between ourselves and them that are as ourselves, what several rules and canons natural reason hath drawn, for direction of life, no man is ignorant, Eccl.
But though this be a state of liberty , yet it is not a state of licence : though man in that state have an uncontroulable liberty to dispose of his person or possessions, yet he has not liberty to destroy himself, or so much as any creature in his possession, but where some nobler use than its bare preservation calls for it.
The state of nature has a law of nature to govern it, which obliges every one: and reason, which is that law, teaches all mankind, who will but consult it, that being all equal and independent , no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty, or possessions: for men being all the workmanship of one omnipotent, and infinitely wise maker; all the servants of one sovereign master, sent into the world by his order, and about his business; they are his property, whose workmanship they are, made to last during his, not one another's pleasure: and being furnished with like faculties, sharing all in one community of nature, there cannot be supposed any such subordination among us, that may authorize us to destroy one another, as if we were made for one another's uses, as the inferior ranks of creatures are for our's.
Every one, as he is bound to preserve himself , and not to quit his station wilfully, so by the like reason, when his own preservation comes not in competition, ought he, as much as he can, to preserve the rest of mankind , and may not, unless it be to do justice on an offender, take away, or impair the life, or what tends to the preservation of the life, the liberty, health, limb, or goods of another. And that all men may be restrained from invading others rights, and from doing hurt to one another, and the law of nature be observed, which willeth the peace and preservation of all mankind , the execution of the law of nature is, in that state, put into every man's hands, whereby every one has a right to punish the transgressors of that law to such a degree, as may hinder its violation: for the law of nature would, as all other laws that concern men in this world 'be in vain, if there were no body that in the state of nature had a power to execute that law, and thereby preserve the innocent and restrain offenders.
And if any one in the state of nature may punish another for any evil he has done, every one may do so: for in that state of perfect equality , where naturally there is no superiority or jurisdiction of one over another, what any may do in prosecution of that law, every one must needs have a right to do. And thus, in the state of nature, one man comes by a power over another ; but yet no absolute or arbitrary power, to use a criminal, when he has got him in his hands, according to the passionate heats, or boundless extravagancy of his own will; but only to retribute to him, so far as calm reason and conscience dictate, what is proportionate to his transgression, which is so much as may serve for reparation and restraint : for these two are the only reasons, why one man may lawfully do harm to another, which is that we call punishment.
In transgressing the law of nature, the offender declares himself to live by another rule than that of reason and common equity, which is that measure God has set to the actions of men, for their mutual security; and so he becomes dangerous to mankind, the tye, which is to secure them from injury and violence, being slighted and broken by him. Which being a trespass against the whole species, and the peace and safety of it, provided for by the law of nature, every man upon this score, by the right he hath to preserve mankind in general, may restrain, or where it is necessary, destroy things noxious to them, and so may bring such evil on any one, who hath transgressed that law, as may make him repent the doing of it, and thereby deter him, and by his example others, from doing the like mischief.
And in the case, and upon this ground, every man hath a right to punish the offender, and be executioner of the Law of Nature. I doubt not but this will seem a very strange doctrine to some men: but before they condemn it, I desire them to resolve me, by what right any prince or state can put to death, or punish an alien , for any crime he commits in their country. It is certain their laws, by virtue of any sanction they receive from the promulgated will of the legislative, reach not a stranger: they speak not to him, nor, if they did, is he bound to hearken to them. The legislative authority, by which they are in force over the subjects of that commonwealth, hath no power over him.
Those who have the supreme power of making laws in England , France or Holland , are to an Indian , but like the rest of the world, men without authority: and therefore, if by the law of nature every man hath not a power to punish offences against it, as he soberly judges the case to require, I see not how the magistrates of any community can punish an alien of another country; since, in reference to him, they can have no more power than what every man naturally may have over another.
No Greater Gift
Besides the crime which consists in violating the law, and varying from the right rule of reason, whereby a man so far becomes degenerate, and declares himself to quit the principles of human nature, and to be a noxious creature, there is commonly injury done to some person or other, and some other man receives damage by his transgression: in which case he who hath received any damage, has, besides the right of punishment common to him with other men, a particular right to seek reparation from him that has done it: and any other person, who finds it just, may also join with him that is injured, and assist him in recovering from the offender so much as may make satisfaction for the harm he has suffered.
From these two distinct rights , the one of punishing the crime for restraint , and preventing the like offence, which right of punishing is in every body; the other of taking reparation , which belongs only to the injured party, comes it to pass that the magistrate, who by being magistrate hath the common right of punishing put into his hands, can often, where the public good demands not the execution of the law, remit the punishment of criminal offences by his own authority, but yet cannot remit the satisfaction due to any private man for the damage he has received.
And Cain was so fully convinced, that every one had a right to destroy such a criminal, that after the murder of his brother, he cries out, Every one that findeth me, shall slay me ; so plain was it writ in the hearts of all mankind. By the same reason may a man in the state of nature punish the lesser breaches of that law. It will perhaps be demanded, with death? I answer, each transgression may be punished to that degree , and with so much severity , as will suffice to make it an ill bargain to the offender, give him cause to repent, and terrify others from doing the like.
Every offence, that can be committed in the state of nature, may in the state of nature be also punished equally, and as far forth as it may, in a commonwealth: for though it would be besides my present purpose, to enter here into the particulars of the law of nature, or its measures of punishment ; yet, it is certain there is such a law, and that too, as intelligible and plain to a rational creature, and a studier of that law, as the positive laws of commonwealths; nay, possibly plainer; as much as reason is easier to be understood, than the fancies and intricate contrivances of men, following contrary and hidden interests put into words; for so truly are a great part of the municipal laws of countries, which are only so far right, as they are founded on the law of nature, by which they are to be regulated and interpreted.
To this strange doctrine, viz. That in the state of nature every one has the executive power of the law of nature, I doubt not but it will be objected, that it is unreasonable for men to be judges in their own cases, that selflove will make men partial to themselves and their friends: and on the other side, that ill nature, passion and revenge will carry them too far in punishing others; and hence nothing but confusion and disorder will follow, and that therefore God hath certainly appointed government to restrain the partiality and violence of men.
It is often asked as a mighty objection, where are , or ever were there any men in such a state of nature? To which it may suffice as an answer at present, that since all princes and rulers of independent governments all through the world, are in a state of nature, it is plain the world never was, nor ever will be, without numbers of men in that state. I have named all governors of independent communities , whether they are, or are not, in league with others: for it is not every compact that puts an end to the state of nature between men, but only this one of agreeing together mutually to enter into one community, and make one body politic; other promises, and compacts, men may make one with another, and yet still be in the state of nature.
To those that say, there were never any men in the state of nature, I will not only oppose the authority of the judicious Hooker , Eccl. But I moreover affirm, that all men are naturally in that state, and remain so, till by their own consents they make themselves members of some politic society; and I doubt not in the sequel of this discourse, to make it very clear. And hence it is, that he who attempts to get another man into his absolute power, does thereby put himself into a state of war with him; it being to be understood as a declaration of a design upon his life: for I have reason to conclude, that he who would get me into his power without my consent, would use me as he pleased when he had got me there, and destroy me too when he had a fancy to it; for no body can desire to have me in his absolute power , unless it be to compel me by force to that which is against the right of my freedom, i.
To be free from such force is the only security of my preservation; and reason bids me look on him, as an enemy to my preservation, who would take away that freedom which is the fence to it; so that he who makes an attempt to enslave me , thereby puts himself into a state of war with me. He that, in the state of nature, would take away the freedom that belongs to any one in that state, must necessarily be supposed to have a design to take away every thing else, that freedom being the foundation of all the rest; as he that, in the state of society, would take away the freedom belonging to those of that society or commonwealth, must be supposed to design to take away from them every thing else, and so be looked on as in a state of war.
This makes it lawful for a man to kill a thief , who has not in the least hurt him, nor declared any design upon his life, any farther than, by the use of force, so to get him in his power, as to take away his money, or what he pleases, from him; because using force, where he has no right, to get me into his power, let his pretence be what it will, I have no reason to suppose, that he, who would take away my liberty , would not, when he had me in his power, take away every thing else. And therefore it is lawful for me to treat him as one who has put himself into a state of war with me, i.
And here we have the plain difference between the state of nature and the state of war , which however some men have confounded, are as far distant, as a state of peace, good will, mutual assistance and preservation, and a state of enmity, malice, violence and mutual destruction, are one from another. Men living together according to reason, without a common superior on earth, with authority to judge between them, is properly the state of nature.
But force, or a declared design of force, upon the person of another, where there is no common superior on earth to appeal to for relief, is the state of war : and it is the want of such an appeal gives a man the right of war even against an aggressor , tho' he be in society and a fellow subject. Thus a thief , whom I cannot harm, but by appeal to the law, for having stolen all that I am worth, I may kill, when he sets on me to rob me but of my horse or coat; because the law, which was made for my preservation, where it cannot interpose to secure my life from present force, which, if lost, is capable of no reparation, permits me my own defence, and the right of war, a liberty to kill the aggressor, because the aggressor allows not time to appeal to our common judge, nor the decision of the law, for remedy in a case where the mischief may be irreparable.
Want of a common judge with authority, puts all men in a state of nature: force without right, upon a man's person, makes a state of war, both where there is, and is not, a common judge. To avoid this state of war wherein there is no appeal but to heaven, and wherein every the least difference is apt to end, where there is no authority to decide between the contenders is one great reason of men's putting themselves into society, and quitting the state of nature: for where there is an authority, a power on earth, from which relief can be had by appeal , there the continuance of the state of war is excluded, and the controversy is decided by that power.
Had there been any such court, any superior jurisdiction on earth, to determine the right between Jephtha and the Ammonites , they had never come to a state of war : but we see he was forced to appeal to heaven. The Lord the Judge says he be judge this day between the children of Israel and the children of Ammon, Judg. It cannot be meant, who shall decide the controversy; every one knows what Jephtha here tells us, that the Lord the Judge shall judge. Where there is no judge on earth, the appeal lies to God in heaven.
That question then cannot mean, who shall judge, whether another hath put himself in a state of war with me, and whether I may, as Jephtha did, appeal to heaven in it? THE natural liberty of man is to be free from any superior power on earth, and not to be under the will or legislative authority of man, but to have only the law of nature for his rule.
The liberty of man , in society, is to be under no other legislative power, but that established, by consent, in the commonwealth; nor under the dominion of any will, or restraint of any law, but what that legislative shall enact, according to the trust put in it. This freedom from absolute, arbitrary power, is so necessary to, and closely joined with a man's preservation, that he cannot part with it, but by what forfeits his preservation and life together: for a man, not having the power of his own life, cannot , by compact, or his own consent, enslave himself to any one, nor put himself under the absolute, arbitrary power of another, to take away his life, when he pleases.
No body can give more power than he has himself; and he that cannot take away his own life, cannot give another power over it. Indeed, having by his fault forfeited his own life, by some act that deserves death; he, to whom he has forfeited it, may when he has him in his power delay to take it, and make use of him to his own service, and he does him no injury by it: for, whenever he finds the hardship of his slavery outweigh the value of his life, it is in his power, by resisting the will of his master, to draw on himself the death he desires.
This is the perfect condition of slavery , which is nothing else, but the state of war continued, between a lawful conqueror and a captive : for, if once compact enter between them, and make an agreement for a limited power on the one side, and obedience on the other, the state of war and slavery ceases, as long as the compact endures: for, as has been said, no man can, by agreement, pass over to another that which he hath not in himself, a power over his own life.
I confess, we find among the Jews , as well as other nations, that men did sell themselves; but, it is plain, this was only to drudgery, not to slavery : for, it is evident, the person sold was not under an absolute, arbitrary, despotical power: for the master could not have power to kill him, at any time, whom, at a certain time, he was obliged to let go free out of his service; and the master of such a servant was so far from having an arbitrary power over his life, that he could not, at pleasure, so much as maim him, but the loss of an eye, or tooth, set him free, Exod.
Whether we consider natural reason, which tells us, that men, being once born, have a right to their preservation, and consequently to meat and drink, and such other things as nature affords for their subsistence: or revelation, which gives us an account of those grants God made of the world to Adam, and to Noah, and his sons, it is very clear, that God, as king David says, Psal.
But this being supposed, it seems to some a very great difficulty, how any one should ever come to have a property in any thing: I will not content myself to answer, that if it be difficult to make out property, upon a supposition that God gave the world to Adam, and his posterity in common, it is impossible that any man, but one universal monarch, should have any property upon a supposition, that God gave the world to Adam, and his heirs in succession, exclusive of all the rest of his posterity. But I shall endeavour to shew, how men might come to have a property in several parts of that which God gave to mankind in common, and that without any express compact of all the commoners.
God, who hath given the world to men in common, hath also given them reason to make use of it to the best advantage of life, and convenience. The earth, and all that is therein, is given to men for the support and comfort of their being. And tho' all the fruits it naturally produces, and beasts it feeds, belong to mankind in common, as they are produced by the spontaneous hand of nature; and no body has originally a private dominion, exclusive of the rest of mankind, in any of them, as they are thus in their natural state: yet being given for the use of men, there must of necessity be a means to appropriate them some way or other, before they can be of any use, or at all beneficial to any particular man.
The fruit, or venison, which nourishes the wild Indian, who knows no enclosure, and is still a tenant in common, must be his, and so his, i. Though the earth, and all inferior creatures, be common to all men, yet every man has a property in his own person: this no body has any right to but himself. The labour of his body, and the work of his hands, we may say, are properly his.
Whatsoever then he removes out of the state that nature hath provided, and left it in, he hath mixed his labour with, and joined to it something that is his own, and thereby makes it his property. It being by him removed from the common state nature hath placed it in, it hath by this labour something annexed to it, that excludes the common right of other men: for this labour being the unquestionable property of the labourer, no man but he can have a right to what that is once joined to, at least where there is enough, and as good, left in common for others.
He that is nourished by the acorns he picked up under an oak, or the apples he gathered from the trees in the wood, has certainly appropriated them to himself. No body can deny but the nourishment is his. I ask then, when did they begin to be his? That labour put a distinction between them and common: that added something to them more than nature, the common mother of all, had done; and so they became his private right.
And will any one say, he had no right to those acorns or apples, he thus appropriated, because he had not the consent of all mankind to make them his? Was it a robbery thus to assume to himself what belonged to all in common? If such a consent as that was necessary, man had starved, notwithstanding the plenty God had given him.
We see in commons, which remain so by compact, that it is the taking any part of what is common, and removing it out of the state nature leaves it in, which begins the property; without which the common is of no use. And the taking of this or that part, does not depend on the express consent of all the commoners.
Two Treatises of Government/Book II
Thus the grass my horse has bit; the turfs my servant has cut; and the ore I have digged in any place, where I have a right to them in common with others, become my property, without the assignation or consent of any body. The labour that was mine, removing them out of that common state they were in, hath fixed my property in them. By making an explicit consent of every commoner, necessary to any one's appropriating to himself any part of what is given in common, children or servants could not cut the meat, which their father or master had provided for them in common, without assigning to every one his peculiar part.
Though the water running in the fountain be every one's, yet who can doubt, but that in the pitcher is his only who drew it out? His labour hath taken it out of the hands of nature, where it was common, and belonged equally to all her children, and hath thereby appropriated it to himself. Thus this law of reason makes the deer that Indian's who hath killed it; it is allowed to be his goods, who hath bestowed his labour upon it, though before it was the common right of every one.
And amongst those who are counted the civilized part of mankind, who have made and multiplied positive laws to determine property, this original law of nature, for the beginning of property, in what was before common, still takes place; and by virtue thereof, what fish any one catches in the ocean, that great and still remaining common of mankind; or what ambergrise any one takes up here, is by the labour that removes it out of that common state nature left it in, made his property, who takes that pains about it.
And even amongst us, the hare that any one is hunting, is thought his who pursues her during the chase: for being a beast that is still looked upon as common, and no man's private possession; whoever has employed so much labour about any of that kind, as to find and pursue her, has thereby removed her from the state of nature, wherein she was common, and hath begun a property. To which I answer, Not so. The same law of nature, that does by this means give us property, does also bound that property too. God has given us all things richly, 1 Tim.
But how far has he given it us? To enjoy. As much as any one can make use of to any advantage of life before it spoils, so much he may by his labour fix a property in: whatever is beyond this, is more than his share, and belongs to others. Nothing was made by God for man to spoil or destroy. And thus, considering the plenty of natural provisions there was a long time in the world, and the few spenders; and to how small a part of that provision the industry of one man could extend itself, and ingross it to the prejudice of others; especially keeping within the bounds, set by reason, of what might serve for his use; there could be then little room for quarrels or contentions about property so established.
But the chief matter of property being now not the fruits of the earth, and the beasts that subsist on it, but the earth itself; as that which takes in and carries with it all the rest; I think it is plain, that property in that too is acquired as the former. As much land as a man tills, plants, improves, cultivates, and can use the product of, so much is his property.
He by his labour does, as it were, inclose it from the common. Nor will it invalidate his right, to say every body else has an equal title to it; and therefore he cannot appropriate, he cannot inclose, without the consent of all his fellow-commoners, all mankind. God, when he gave the world in common to all mankind, commanded man also to labour, and the penury of his condition required it of him.
God and his reason commanded him to subdue the earth, i. He that in obedience to this command of God, subdued, tilled and sowed any part of it, thereby annexed to it something that was his property, which another had no title to, nor could without injury take from him. Nor was this appropriation of any parcel of land, by improving it, any prejudice to any other man, since there was still enough, and as good left; and more than the yet unprovided could use.
So that, in effect, there was never the less left for others because of his enclosure for himself: for he that leaves as much as another can make use of, does as good as take nothing at all. No body could think himself injured by the drinking of another man, though he took a good draught, who had a whole river of the same water left him to quench his thirst: and the case of land and water, where there is enough of both, is perfectly the same.
God gave the world to men in common; but since he gave it them for their benefit, and the greatest conveniencies of life they were capable to draw from it, it cannot be supposed he meant it should always remain common and uncultivated. He gave it to the use of the industrious and rational, and labour was to be his title to it; not to the fancy or covetousness of the quarrelsome and contentious. He that had as good left for his improvement, as was already taken up, needed not complain, ought not to meddle with what was already improved by another's labour: if he did, it is plain he desired the benefit of another's pains, which he had no right to, and not the ground which God had given him in common with others to labour on, and whereof there was as good left, as that already possessed, and more than he knew what to do with, or his industry could reach to.
It is true, in land that is common in England, or any other country, where there is plenty of people under government, who have money and commerce, no one can inclose or appropriate any part, without the consent of all his fellowcommoners; because this is left common by compact, i. And though it be common, in respect of some men, it is not so to all mankind; but is the joint property of this country, or this parish.
Besides, the remainder, after such enclosure, would not be as good to the rest of the commoners, as the whole was when they could all make use of the whole; whereas in the beginning and first peopling of the great common of the world, it was quite otherwise. The law man was under, was rather for appropriating. God commanded, and his wants forced him to labour.
That was his property which could not be taken from him where-ever he had fixed it. And hence subduing or cultivating the earth, and having dominion, we see are joined together. The one gave title to the other. So that God, by commanding to subdue, gave authority so far to appropriate: and the condition of human life, which requires labour and materials to work on, necessarily introduces private possessions.
The measure of property nature has well set by the extent of men's labour and the conveniencies of life: no man's labour could subdue, or appropriate all; nor could his enjoyment consume more than a small part; so that it was impossible for any man, this way, to intrench upon the right of another, or acquire to himself a property, to the prejudice of his neighbour, who would still have room for as good, and as large a possession after the other had taken out his as before it was appropriated.
This measure did confine every man's possession to a very moderate proportion, and such as he might appropriate to himself, without injury to any body, in the first ages of the world, when men were more in danger to be lost, by wandering from their company, in the then vast wilderness of the earth, than to be straitened for want of room to plant in.